Saturday, 8 September 2012

List of English words of Indian Origins

English has lot of loaned words . I will begin with the words that were loaned to that from my native Tamil and other Indian languages. We Indians are also native speakers of English. Since, English is the defacto language and in many cases or regions it is the Dejure language for conversation and day to day affairs although several states have their own language as THE DEJURE language for the state.

  • List of English words of Tamil origin
    from Tamil கட்டுமரம் kattumaram ("kattu"=tie up, "maram"=tree/wood) (Source: OED, AHD, MWD)
    from a Tamil word for 'ruby', குருந்தம் kuruntham or குருவிந்தம் kuruvintham (Source: OED)
    From Tamil Yelakkai or ஏலக்காய் / ஏலக்கை. Cardamom is grown on the slopes of Western ghats and the hills that are home to this spice is called CARDAMOM HILLS.
    from Tamil மிளகுத்தண்ணீர் milagu-tanneer from milagu black pepper and tanneer, water (Source: OED, AHD, MWD)
    from Tamil பறையர் paṟaiyar, plural of பறையன் paṟaiyaṉ "drummer". The meaning of "drummer" dates to 1613 (via Portuguese ?), but the current extended meaning of "outcast" for pariah is first attested in 1819. (Source: OED, AHD, MWD)
    from Tamil pachchai பச்சை (green), and ellai இலை (leaf).
    from Tamil பந்தல் pandhal (Source: OED)
    from Tamil துத்தநாகம் thuthanaagam meaning "raw zinc" (Source: OED)
    from Tamil வெட்டிவேர் vettiver; a tropical Indian grass; Botanical name: Vetiveria zizanioides; its aromatic roots are used for weaving screens and baskets and the oil in perfumery (source: AHD)
    from Tamil anaikattu, ("anai"=dam, "kattu"=building/structure) (source:MWD)
    from Tamil Pannamarrum/Pannai, (Marram = Tree)
    English words that ultimately have a Tamil origin
    late 13c., "crystalized sugar," from O.Fr. çucre candi "sugar candy," ultimately from Arabic qandi, from Pers. qand "cane sugar," probably from Skt. khanda "piece (of sugar)," perhaps from Dravidian (cf. Tamil kantu "candy," kattu "to harden, condense"). As a verb, attested from 1530s; hence, candied (c.1600).
    via French cheroute, from Tamil சுருட்டு suruṭṭu, roll or rolled (Source: OED, AHD, MWD)
    old name of a region and French colony in southern Vietnam, from Fr. Cochin-China, from Portuguese corruption of Ko-chen, of uncertain meaning; the China added to distinguish it from the town and port of Cochin in southwest India, the name of which is Tamil, perhaps from கொஞ்சம் koncham "little," in reference to the river there.
    "small bed", 1630s via Hindi khat "couch, hammock," from Skt. khatva (Dravidian source: Tamil கட்டில் kattil "bedstead").
    "small shell", via Hindi and Urdu kauri, from Mahrati kavadi, from Skt. kaparda (Source : Tamil கொடு kotu "shell").
    via Hindi-Urdu from Tamil கறி kaṟi "sauce" (Source: OED, AHD, MWD)
    1580s, from Port. pagode (early 16c.), from a corruption of Pers. butkada, from but "idol" + kada "dwelling." Or perhaps from or influenced by Tamil pagavadi "house belonging to a deity," from Skt. bhagavati "goddess," fem. of bhagavat "blessed, adorable," from *bhagah "good fortune," from PIE base *bhag- "to share out, apportion".
    poucock, from M.E. po "peacock" + coc (see cock (n.)). Po is from O.E. pawa "peafowl," from L. pavo (gen. pavonis), which, with Gk. taos said to be ultimately from Tamil tokei(but perhaps is imitative; Latin represented the peacock's sound as paupulo). The Latin word also is the source of O.H.G. pfawo, Ger. Pfau, Du. pauw, O.C.S. pavu. Used as the type of a vainglorious person from late 14c. Its flesh superstitiously believed to be incorruptible (even St. Augustine credits this). "When he sees his feet, he screams wildly, thinking that they are not in keeping with the rest of his body."
    via Hindi-Urdu or Punjabi, from Malayalam or Tamil பப்படம் pappaṭam, ultimately Sanskrit पर्पट parpaṭa "a kind of thin cake made of rice or pease-meal and baked in grease" or "a thin crisp cake" (Source: OED)
    portia tree
    ultimately from Tamil பூவரசு puvarasu (Source: OED)
    The English word rice is not borrowed from the Greek word "oruza" ((μαγειρ.) ὄρύζα), as previously thought (and found in older handbooks), nor is it a direct borrowing from Tamil அரிசி arici. The relation between Engl. rice and Tamil அரிசி arici is in fact more complicated, as demonstrated in more recent researches. Although Engl. rice is indeed ultimately from (Old) Tamil, the "rice" word has entered English, through several intermediary languages, notably via Church Latin, (Old) French, (Old) Spanish, (Old) Italian and Arabic. tuuf shanthi ramya bharatji umamageswari rajeswari
Major English dictionaries like Oxford English Dictionary, American Heritage Dictionary, and Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, do not conclusively attribute Tamil origin to these words.
possibly from Tamil ஆனை கொன்றன் aanai kondran, elephant killer. OED gives derivation from Tamil anai-kondra (anaik-konda), meaning "which killed an elephant.” AHD, MWD, New Oxford American Dictionary give origin from Sinhalese හෙනකඳයා henakaňdayā, "whipsnake".
Of disputed origin. The primary meaning of the word cash, "paper money", or "money" in general, may be from French caisse, Provençal caissa, Italian cassa "money box" from Vulgar Latin capsa "chest, box". A secondary meaning of cash, referring to any of the various coins used in southern India and China, could be from Malayalam or Tamil காசு kācu (Source: OED, AHD, MWD)
Of disputed origin. OED states Tamil is proposed by some as the language of origin, from கூலி cooli a Tamil word for "labour". Alternatively, it could refer to a tribe from Gujarat, whose members were frequently employed as manual laborers.
The English word ginger is derived from the Middle English gingivere, which in turn comes from Old English gingifer and from Old French gingivre, both from Medieval Latin gingiber. The Latin word is derived from Greek ζιγγίβερις zingiberis, of Middle Indic origin (akin to Pali सिन्गिभेरम् singiveram), from Dravidian roots, akin to Tamil இஞ்சி வேர்
iñcivēr -- இஞ்சி iñci = ginger (of southeast Asian origin) + Tamil வேர் vēr = root.
via Malay gudang, from a Dravidian origin, cf. Kannada gadangu, Tamil கிட்டங்கி (கிடங்கு) Kittangi (kidangu/kodangu) "store room" (Source: OED)
exact origin unknown, cf. Tamil முருங்கை murungai , Tamil word for drumstick (Source: OED, AHD)

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