**INDIA’S SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE WORLD**

* Few
discoveries were also later done by some westerners

*** Later
known as or known to be

# Later by
Sir Isaac Newton 1642-1727 later known as Newton’s Law of Motion

# Later
confirmed by Galileo Galilei 1564-1642

## More
refinement

1.
Discovery and use of Zero: Pingalacharya - 200BC

2.
Loans and Interests: Vishnusmruthi - 100BC

3.
Charging Interests: Vishnusmruthi - 100BC

4.
Pythagorus Theorem *: Boudhayana - 700BC

5.
Binomial Theorem *: Pingalacharya - 200 BC

6.
Geometry in Sulbusutra – II: Boudhayana - 700BC

7.
Rules of Bodies in Motion * #: Aryabatta 1 - 499AD

8.
Arc and Chord: Aryabatta 1 - 499AD

9.
Circle – Value of Phi: Aryabatta 1 - 499AD

9A.
Circle – Value of Phi ##: Baskaracharya 1 - 628 AD

10.
Triangles: Aryabatta 1 - 499 AD

11.
Rotation of Earth II *#: Aryabatta 1 - 499AD

12.
Eclipse 1: Aryabatta 1 - 499 AD

13.
Four Quadrants of Earth: Aryabatta 1 -499 AD

14.
Nrushiysjanam: Aryabatta 1 -499AD

15.
Day Diameter: Panchasiddhantika 4 - 505 AD

16.
Meridian and Time: Varahamihira

17.
Knowledge of Infinity: Baskaracharya 11 in 600 AD and refined by Bharmaguptha
in 1148 AD same were republished by Albert Einstein 1879-1955

18.
Use of Ratio and Proportion: Baskaracharya 1 – 628 AD

19.
Use of Fractions: Baskaracharya 1 – 628 AD

20.
Partnership and Shares: Baskaracharya 1 – 628 AD

21.
Progression of Type 1 Sq +2Sq +3Sq + 4Sq: Bhaskaracharya 1 - 628 AD

22.
Progression of Type 1Cu + 2C+3Cu+ 4Cu: Bhaskarachrya 1 – 628 AD

23.
Triangles (Quiz) Baskara 1 – 628 AD

24.
Rotation of Earth 1: Bharmaguptha – 629 AD

25.
Place Values 1: Vyasa Bhashya to Yoga Sutra – 650 AD

26.
Parallax II: Lallacharya – 700 AD

27.
Parallax III: Lallacharya – 700 AD

28.
Apogee, Perigee and Orbit of Earth: Lallacharya – 700 AD

29.
Appearances of Circumference of Earth: Lallacharya – 700 AD

30.
Shape of Earth: Lallacharya – 700 AD

31.
Globe: Varahamihira – 505 AD

32.
Meridian and Time: Baskara 1 – 628 AD

33.
Eclipse 11: Lallacharya – 700 AD

34.
Eclipse 111: Lallacharya – 700 AD

35.
Angular Dimensions: Vateswara – 880 AD

36.
Horizon: Vateswara – 880 AD

37.
Astronomical Definitions: Vateswara – 880 AD

38.
Equator: Vateswara – 880 AD

39.
6 o’ Clock Circle: Vateswara – 880 AD

40.
Circle of Diurnal Moon: Vateswara – 880 AD

41.
Day Radius: Vateswara – 880 AD

42.
Ecliptic: Vateswara – 880 AD

43.
Setting point of Ecliptic: Vateswara – 880 AD

44.
Rising – Setting line: Vateswara – 880 AD

45.
Day Radius and Earth sine: Vateswara – 880 AD

46.
Sun’s Prime Vertical: Vateswara – 880 AD

47.
Progression of Type En + En Sq + En Cu: Sreedharacharya – 900 AD

48.
First Degree Indeterminate Equation: Sreedharacharya – 900 AD

49.
Newton Gauss: Vateswara – 904 AD (Later by Newton in 1670)

50.
First Order Equation – II: Sreedharacharya – 990 AD

51.
Equations of Higher Order -1: Sreedharacharya – 990 AD

52.
Permutations and Combinations -1: Sridaracharya – 990 AD

53.
Interest Calculation: Sreedharacharya – 990 Ad

54.
Meeting place of the two surfaces: Aryabatta 1 – 499 AD

55.
Meridian: Sankaranarayana 1 – 950 AD

56.
Eclipse -1: Sankaranarayana 1 – 950 AD

57.
Knowledge of Infinity: Bharmaguptha & Baskaracharya II – 600 & 1148 AD

58.
Permutations and Combination II: Baskaracharya II – 1114 AD

59.
Calculations with Zero: Sripati – 1039 AD

60.
First Order Equation -1: Bhaskaracharya II- 1114 AD

61.
Equations of higher Order –II: Bhaskaracharya II – 1114 AD

62.
Area of Circle and Sphere: Baskaracharya II- 1114 AD

63.
Polygonal: Baskara II – 1114 AD

64.
Length of Arc – Chord: Baskara II – 1114 AD

65.
Arc and Arrow: Baskara II- 1114 AD

66.
Volumes of Cones: Baskara II – 1114 AD

67.
Gravity: Baskara II – 1114 AD

68.
Use of Average Values: Baskaracharya II – 1150 AD

69.
Gregory’s calender: Madhava – 1350 AD (in 1632 by Pope Ugo Buoncompagni Gregory
XIII)

70.
*** De Molvre’s (1650 AD) Approximation: Madhavacharya – 1350 AD

71.
***Lhuiler’s (1782 AD) Formula: Madhavacharya – 1350 AD

72.
*** Lebnitz (1673 AD) Power Series: Puthumana Somayaji – 1440 AD

73.
***Taylor (1685 AD) Series of Sine and Cosine: Nilakanta – 1444 AD

74.
*** Newton’s Infinite GP Convergent series: Nilakantha- 1444 AD

75.
Somayaji’s Theorems: Puthumana Somayaji – 1450 AD

76.
Arc & Chord: Puthumana Somayaji – 1450 AD

77.
Sine, Cosine, Radius and Arc: Puthumana Somayaji – 1450 AD

78.
*** Newton’s (1660 AD) Power Series: Puthumana Somayaji – 1450 AD

79.
Velocity of Planets per Day: Puthumana Somayaji – 1450 AD

80.
Place Values – II: Sankaracharya – Year unknown

81.
Tycho Brahe Reduction of Ecliptic: Achyuta Pisharoti – Year Unknown

82.
Parallax -1: Lallacharya – Year Unknown

**Inventions by Indian Scientists and later by Western Scientists:**

**Word in**

**Red are by Indians and black by Westerners**

1.
BHOUDHAYANA – 700 BC -> Pythagoras Theorem: Pythagoras – 500
BC

& Proof of Pythagoras Theorem: Euclid –
300 BC

2.
SUSRUTHA – 700 BC-> Cataract Operation : Joseph Lister – 1600 AD

lithotomy: Marios Santos – 1600 AD

Plastic Surgery: Joseph Constantine –
1814 AD

Nose Surgery: Gasparo Tag Cozzi –
1600 AD

Caesarean:

Amputation:

Organ Transplant:

Artificial implantation of organs:

Surgical Instruments:

Anastasia:

3.
KANAPPAR (Year Not known) : Eye Transplant

4.
GOUTHAMA - 300 BC -> *** Evolution Theory: Charles Robert
Darwin – 1800 AD

*** Wave Nature of Sound: Hyghen – 1700 AD

5. KANAADA –
300 BC - > *** Atomic Theory:
John Dalton (1766-1844) – 1822 AD

6. CHARAKA –
300 BC - > *** Blood Circulation:
William Harvey (1578-1657) – 1656 AD

*** Micro Organisms: Lewis Pasture: 1822
AD

7.
ARYABHATTA -1 - 476 AD ->

*** Spherical Shape of Earth: Galileo
Galilei – 1564 AD

*** Revolution of Earth: Kepler – 1571 AD

*** Apogee: Kepler

*** Sine & Cosine: DeMolvre’s

*** Diameter of Earth: Copernicus – 1473
AD

*** Value of Pie: Lindemann – 1882 AD

*** Square Root Determination: Cantanew
– 1546 AD

8.
VARAHAMITRA – 505 AD ->

Comets:
Haley – 1656 AD

9.
BRAMAGUPTHA – 628 AD ->

*** Style’s Equation: Style – 1600 AD

*** Positive integral: DeMolvre’s – 1667
AD

*** Sterling Formula: Sterling – 1642 AD

*** Newton’s Sterling Interpolation:
Newton / Sterling

*** Equation for Area for Cyclic Quadrilateral:
W. Shell – 1619 AD

*** Equation for Radius of Cyclic Quadrilateral:
Lhuiler – 1782 AD

*** Intermediate Equation of Second Degree:
Langrange – 1560

10.
GOVINDASWAMIN – 800 AD - >

*** Newton Gauss Forward:

*** Interpolation Formula: NEWTON / GAUSS

11.
LALLACHARYA – 748 AD - >

*** Perigee: Kepler

12.
VATESWARA – 860 AD ->

*** Newton Gauss Backward:

*** Interpolation Formula: Newton / Gauss

13. BHASKARA
II - 1114 AD ->

*** Gravity: Newton

*** Cyclic Method: Galois – 1600 AD

*** Inverse Cyclic Method: Euler – 1600
AD

*** Differential Calculus: Newton

*** Rolle’s Theorem: Rolle – 1646 AD

*** Theory of Continued Fraction:
Sanderson

*** Pellian Equation: Deoron Pale – 1660
AD

14. MADHAVA
– 1350 AD - >

*** Taylor Sine Cosine Series: Taylor –
1685 AD

*** Lebnitz Series: Lednitz – 1642 AD

*** Gregory’s series of Arc: Gregory

*** Lednitz Infinite: Lebnitz

15.
PARAMESWARA – 1360 AD ->

*** Lhuiler Formula: Lhuiler – 1782 AD

16.
NILAKANTHA – 1440 AD - >

***
Infinite GP Series: Newton

***
Lebnitz Power Series: Lebnitz

17.
SAYANA – 1400 AD - >

***
Velocity of Light: Newton –
1642 AD

18.
PUTHUMANA SOMAYAJI – 1440 AD ->

***
DeMolvre’s Infinite Series:
DeMolvre’s

19.
ACHYUTHA PISHAROTI – 1530 AD - >

***
Tycho – Brahe Reduction: Tycho
Brahe – 1546 AD

**THESE ARE MY CONSCIENTIOUS COLLECTION OF DATA FROM VARIOUS SOURCES.**